One prominent example of a ketone is acetone, used in nail polish remover. Aldehydes often appear in nature — for instance, as vanillin, which gives vanilla beans their pleasing aroma. The ketones carvone and camphor impart the characteristic flavors of spearmint leaves and caraway seeds.
Carboxylic acids all have in common what is known as a carboxyl group , designated by the symbol -COOH. This consists of a carbon atom with a double bond to an oxygen atom, and a single bond to another oxygen atom that is, in turn, wedded to a hydrogen. Lactic acid, generated by the human body, is a carboxylic acid : when a person overexerts, the muscles generate lactic acid , resulting in a feeling of fatigue until the body converts the acid to water and carbon dioxide.
Another example of a carboxylic acid is butyric acid , responsible in part for the smells of rancid butter and human sweat. When a carboxylic acid reacts with an alcohol, it forms an ester. An ester has a structure similar to that described for a carboxylic acid, with a few key differences.
In addition to its bonds one double, one single with the oxygen atoms, the carbon atom is also attached to a hydrocarbon, which comes from the carboxylic acid. Furthermore, the single-bonded oxygen atom is attached not to a hydrogen, but to a second hydrocarbon, this one from the alcohol. One well-known ester is acetylsalicylic acid — better known as aspirin. Esters, which are a key factor in the aroma of various types of fruit, are often noted for their pleasant smell.
Polymers are long, stringy molecules made of smaller molecules called monomers. They appear in nature, but thanks to Carothers — a tragic figure, who committed suicide a year before Nylon made its public debut — as well as other scientists and inventors, synthetic polymers are a fundamental part of daily life. The structure of even the simplest polymer, polyethylene, is far too complicated to discuss in ordinary language, but must be represented by chemical symbolism.
Indeed, polymers are a subject unto themselves, but it is worth noting here just how many products used today involve polymers in some form or another. Polyethylene, for instance, is the plastic used in garbage bags, electrical insulation, bottles, and a host of other applications. A variation on polyethylene is Teflon, used not only in nonstick cookware, but also in a number of other devices, such as bearings for low-temperature use. Polymers of various kinds are found in siding for houses, tire tread, toys, carpets and fabrics, and a variety of other products far too lengthy to enumerate.
Chemistry Help Online for Students Web site. Knapp, Brian J. Carbon Chemistry. Illustrated by David Woodroffe. Danbury, CT: Grolier Educational, Sparrow, Giles. New York : Benchmark Books, Zumdahl, Steven S. Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation, 4th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, A term describing a type of solid in which the constituent parts have a simple and definite geometric arrangement repeated in all directions.
A form of bonding in which two atoms share two pairs of valence electrons. Carbon is also capable of single bonds and triple bonds. Substances having the same chemical formula, but that are different chemically due to disparities in the arrangement of atoms. A term describing the distribution of valence electrons that takes place in chemical bonding for most elements, which end up with eight valence electrons. The study of carbon, its compounds, and their properties. Some carbon-containing compounds, most notably oxides and carbonates, are not considered organic.
A term describing a hydrocarbon in which each carbon is already bound to four other atoms. Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons. A form of bonding in which two atoms share one pair of valence electrons. Carbon is also capable of double bonds and triple bonds. Branches of alkanes, named by taking the name of an alkane and replacing the suffix with yl — for example, methyl, ethyl, and so on.
A form of bonding in which two atoms share three pairs of valence electrons. Carbon is also capable of single bonds and double bonds.
A term describing a hydrocarbon in which the carbons involved in a multiple bond a double bond or triple bond are free to bond with other atoms. Alkenes and alkynes are bothunsaturated. Electrons that occupy the highest principal energy level in an atom. These are the electrons involved in chemical bonding. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. October 31, Retrieved October 31, from Encyclopedia.
Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
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Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia. Organic chemistry is the chemistry of carbon compounds. All organic compounds contain carbon; however, there are some compounds of carbon that are not classified as organic. For example, salts such as carbonates e.
Chemistry and Its Branches
Perhaps a more useful description might be: Organic compounds are compounds of carbon that usually contain hydrogen and that may also contain other elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, or halogen F, Cl, Br, or I. In any case, there are very few carbon compounds that are not organic, while there are millions that are. Prehistoric civilizations obtained many useful chemicals from plants and animals.
They were familiar with sugar, which they learned to ferment to make wine. Then they found that the wine could turn into vinegar. Ancient Egyptians used blue dye made from the indigo in madder root, and a royal purple dye extracted from a rare kind of mollusk. Soap was made by heating animal fat with base from wood ashes. During the Middle Ages dry distillation of wood yielded mixtures of methyl alcohol , acetone, and acetic acid. Alchemists isolated cholesterol from gallstones, morphine from opium, and drugs such as quinine, strychnine, and brucine from various plants. Two hundred years ago chemists such as Antoine Lavoisier determined the elemental composition of many of these substances and noted that they all contained carbon and hydrogen, and that many also contained oxygen and nitrogen.
It also appeared that there were two classes of materials: the mineral type generally hard, high-melting, and noncombustible , and the organic type often soft, liquid or low melting solids, and frequently easily combustible materials. Most organic chemicals could be burned to produce carbon dioxide ; and any hydrogen present was converted to water H 2 O. Because organic compounds had for centuries been isolated only from plants and animals, it was commonly believed that some "vital force" in living things was necessary to produce them.
Since that time organic chemistry has grown into a vast and ever expanding field that encompasses millions of chemical compounds. The field of organic chemistry includes more than twenty million compounds for which properties have been determined and recorded in the literature. Many hundreds of new compounds are added every day. Much more than half of the world's chemists are organic chemists. Some new organic compounds are simply isolated from plants or animals; some are made by modifying naturally occurring chemicals; but most new organic compounds are actually synthesized in the laboratory from other usually smaller organic molecules.
Over the years organic chemists have developed a broad array of reactions that allow them to make all kinds of complex products from simpler starting materials. When one considers the millions of chemical compounds that are known and notes that more than 95 percent of them are compounds of carbon, one realizes that carbon is unique.
Why are there so many carbon compounds? It turns out that atoms of carbon are quite remarkable in a number of ways. Carbon atoms form very strong bonds with other carbon atoms. The bonds are so strong that carbon can form long chains, some containing thousands of carbon atoms. Carbon is the only element that can do this. A carbon atom forms four bonds, therefore carbon not only can form long chains, but it also forms chains that have branches.
It is a major reason why carbon compounds exhibit so much isomerism. The simple compound decane C 10 H 22 , for example, has 75 different isomers. Carbon atoms can be bonded by double or triple bonds as well as single bonds. This multiple bonding is much more prevalent with carbon than with any other element.
Carbon atoms can form rings of various sizes. The rings may be saturated or unsaturated. The unsaturated 6-membered ring known as the benzene ring is the basis for an entire subfield of "aromatic" organic chemistry. Carbon atoms form strong bonds not only with other carbon atoms but also with atoms of other elements. In addition to hydrogen, many carbon compounds also contain oxygen. Nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and the halogens also frequently occur in carbon compounds. Various kinds of functional groups occur widely among carbon compounds, and many different kinds of isomers are possible.
Compounds of carbon and hydrogen only are called hydrocarbons. These are the simplest compounds of organic chemistry. The most basic group of hydrocarbons are the alkanes, which contain only single bonds. The simplest member of the alkane series is methane, CH 4 , the main component of natural gas. The names of some alkanes are listed in Table 1.
Alkanes sometimes. Since a 4-carbon chain of the alkane series is called butane, a ring of 4 carbon atoms is called cyclobutane. Simple hydrocarbons that contain one or more double bonds are called alkenes. They are named like alkanes, but their names end in " — ene. A 3-carbon chain that has a double bond is called propene.
A 5-carbon hydrocarbon chain with a double bond is called pentene, and if the double bond links the second and third carbons, it is 2- pentene. Like cycloalkanes, alkenes have the general formula C n H 2n. Alkenes having ring structures are called cycloalkenes. A 5-carbon ring with a double bond is called cyclopentene. Hydrocarbons that contain one or more triple bonds are called alkynes, and is the name ending is " — yne. However, the compound is often referred to by its common name, which is acetylene. Compounds that contain double or triple bonds are said to be "unsaturated" — because they are not "saturated" with hydrogen atoms.
Unsaturated compounds are reactive materials that readily add hydrogen when heated over a catalyst such as nickel. The reverse reaction also occurs. Heating ethane with steam is an important commercial process for making ethene or ethylene. This is an important commercial process called "steam cracking. When a 6-carbon ring contains 2 double bonds, it is called cyclohexadiene, but when it has 3 double bonds, it is not called cyclohexatriene; this is because a 6-carbon ring with three double bonds takes on a special kind of stability.
The double bonds become completely conjugated and no longer behave as double bonds. The ring, known as a "benzene ring," is said to be aromatic. The removal of a hydrogen atom from a hydrocarbon molecule leaves an alkyl group that readily attaches to a functional group, or forms a branch on a hydrocarbon chain. The groups are named after the corresponding hydrocarbons. A benzene ring from which a hydrogen atom has been removed is often referred to as a phenyl.
The branched molecules shown here would be given names as follows. Theoretically there is no limit to the length of hydrocarbon chains. Very large hydrocarbon molecules polymers have been made containing as many as , carbon atoms. However, such molecules are hard to make and very difficult to melt and to shape into useful products. Hydrocarbons are obtained primarily from fossil fuels — especially petroleum and natural gas. Natural gas is a mixture that is largely methane mixed with varying amounts of ethane and other light hydrocarbons, while petroleum is a complex mixture of many different hydrocarbons.
Coal , the other fossil fuel, is a much more complicated material from which many kinds of organic compounds, some of them hydrocarbons, can be obtained. Alkane molecules are rather unreactive except for being very flammable , but alkenes react with many other substances. When a drop of bromine is added to an alkene, for example, the deep orange color of the bromine immediately disappears as the bromine adds across the double bond to form a dibromo derivative.
The double bond is called a "functional group" because its presence in a molecule causes reactivity at that particular site. There are a dozen or so functional groups that appear frequently in organic compounds. Journal of Physical Chemistry A. Bibcode : JPCA.. Periodic table. Alternatives Janet's left step table.
Types and Branches of Chemistry | An Insight into The Different Types Of Chemistry
Lists of metalloids by source Dividing line. Reactive nonmetals Noble gases.
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Crystal structure Electron configuration Electronegativity Goldschmidt classification Term symbol. Element discoveries Mendeleev's predictions Naming etymology controversies for places for people in East Asia. Book Category. Geochemistry reach is not only bound to the earth but encompasses the entire Solar System too. In this branch of chemistry, you will get to learn and understand a number of processes like the formation of planets, mantle convection and the genesis of basalt and granite etc.
Applications: Geochemists can find themselves a job in the mining industry and as Environmental Remediator. Along with these, a geologist can also find employment in the oil, gas and petroleum sector.
In this branch of chemistry, you will study how the above-mentioned fuels work in the fuel pumps, distribution systems, and storage tanks. These chemists get work both Onshore and Offshore. This branch of Chemistry focuses on the scientific discipline dealing with long chemical chains.
It is the study of structure, chemical synthesis, macromolecules, physical properties of polymers etc. You will learn that the methodology applied in polymer chemistry is common to organic, analytical and physical chemistry. With technological advancements in every sector, this is the best time to be in the field of chemistry.
Make sure you choose the right stream based on your skill set, interest, and strengths. Do you want to get into this world of chemical engineering? Embibe is India's leading AI Based tech-company with a keen focus on improving learning outcomes, using personalised data analytics, for students across all level of ability and access. Support: support embibe.
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